Pharmaceutical & Organic Chemical Technology
Project manager(s): 
Lichens are symbiotic organisms that consist of fungi and photosynthetic symbionts such as algae and cyanobacteria. Lichens belong to the fungi in the classification of living organisms. lichens produce many kinds of secondary metabolites and because they are the source of secondary metabolites, they are considered a bioactive ingredient. Due to the large number of secondary metabolites exclusively belong to lichens, we studied the chemistry of important lichens in Iran, the identification of secondary metabolites and the evaluation of biological properties and their applications in this research. At the beginning for the first time, the lichens of Diploschistes ocellatus (Fr.) Norman and Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch from the north of the country (Golestan province) were sampled and collected and transferred to the Museum of lichens (herbarium) in Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology and they were studied. these two samples were identified by optical microscope and it was determined that both samples belong to crustose lichens, depending on their structure and characteristics. The type of compounds in the lichens were iidentified by spot test, as the presence of red in color due to the use of K-reagent in this test confirmed the presence of depside and depsidone compounds. Extracting was done by maceration. It is a fast extraction technique. It was established that acetone is the best solvent of choice. An extract of each lichen sample was used for thin-layer chromatography, anti bacterial properties were evaluated using disk diffusion method, ultraviolet radiation protection by spectrophotometric scanning, and finally, mass analysis of secondary metabolites, using a liquid chromatography- mass spectrometer. In the lichen Diploschistes ocellatus (Fr.) Norman, the results of thin-layer chromatography confirmed the presence of diploschistesic acid, lecanoric acid and norestictic acid. With the microbial test revealed, it does not have antibacterial properties. It also has ultraviolet radiation protection due to its maximum absorbance and is an anti UV. Ultimately, since we encountered more of the metabolites in this lichen, we used the extract of this lichen for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Diploschistesic acid, lecanoric acid, gyrophoric acid, norstictic acid and atranorin were identified. In the lichen Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch was diagnosed diploschistesic acid, lecanoric acid metabolites. It has an acceptable antibacterial effect and also protects against ultraviolet radiation and is an UV filter or natural photo protective agent. In this study, we have succeeded in increasing and improving the data of two important samples of native Iranian lichens. According to the results of these lichens, they are expected to have good potential for use in cosmetic products and pharmaceutical applications. Also the secondary metabolites of these extracts can be a good alternative to costly synthetic and commercial types.‎